Black Face General has high mineral content and contains polyphenols, catechins, alkaloids, caffeine, tannins and vitamins and bio-active components such as stigmasterol and β-sitosterol . The water extract of this plant was reported to contain compounds with very high binding affinity to protein molecules, hence, inhibiting the proliferation of retroviruses . Pharmacological studies have further shown the ability of S. crispus in preventing chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Administration of S. crispus extract also reduced the severity of hepatic necrosis in rats with diethylnitrosamine- and acetylaminofluorene-induced hepatocellular carcinoma and this was suggested to be due to the inhibition of enzymes involved in metabolic activation of the carcinogens . In vitro studies demonstrated that crude methanol (MeOH) extract of S. crispus was cytotoxic against HepG2 (liver), Caco-2 (colon) and MDA-MB-231 (breast) cancer cell lines while the chloroform extract was found to be cytotoxic to HepG2 and Caco-2 cells only . These authors also reported that stigmasterol and β-sitosterol isolated from S. crispus leaves were cytotoxic to Caco-2, HepG-2, MCF-7 as well as MDA-MB-231 (stigmasterol only) cells. The essential oils of this plant, however, did not display any cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, despite their high antioxidant content.